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Know Your SAF: Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuels

Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) is quickly becoming the new standard for decarbonizing aviation and addressing Scope 3 emissions, but not all SAF delivers equal impact. Our latest analysis shows why eSAF produced via the Power-to-Liquid pathway is the best way forward. Download full report


Aviation's Sustainable Future

At Twelve, we are optimistic about aviation's sustainable future. While the aviation sector is responsible for a significant share of global CO2 emissions (2-3%), Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) is the key to decarbonizing the sector.

Today the industry consumes approximately 100B gallons of conventional, petroleum- based jet fuel annually, a figure that is expected to increase to ~150B gallons by 2050.

The sector is inexorably linked to fossil fuel extraction. A world in which we reach our climate targets will need to decouple itself from this dependence. Non-fossil-derived Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) provides an alternative without sacrificing access to the air travel that makes up a key pillar of our modern transport networks for goods and people.

We acknowledge that there are multiple pathways to low-emission, fossil-free aviation, but not all fuel options are created equal. It is important for decision-makers in the industry, from airline and corporate executives, to customers buying plane tickets, know the different types of SAF and how they stack up in terms of impact.

We believe that the tradeoffs between SAF options should be clear, with a focus on the most efficient and sustainable options.

Four Pathways to Meet Global SAF Demand

There are currently four key pathways for producing SAF. While most SAF produced today is a type of biofuel, Power-to-Liquid (also referred to as eSAF) is a new class of sustainable aviation fuel that is not a biofuel. It is produced through an electrochemical process that uses CO2, water and renewable energy.

The four pathways for producing SAF are: The Fats Way, The Corn Way, The Garbage Way and The Air Way.

1. The Fats Way (HEFA)

Biofuel made with feedstocks such as vegetable oils, waste oils or animal waste fat.

2. The Corn Way (Alcohol-to-Jet)

Biofuels that use agriculture crops such as corn to produce ethanol, which is then refined into jet fuel.

3. The Garbage Way (Gasification)

Gasification is a process that converts raw material like municipal waste into syngas, which is then turned into jet fuel.

4. The Air Way (Power-to-Liquid / e-SAF)

Power-to-Liquid (PtL) fuels, also known as e-SAF, are not biofuels as they do not use direct organic compounds as feedstocks. Instead, this fuel is made from CO2, water and renewable energy, like our E-Jet® SAF.

The Power-to-Liquid Advantage

We believe Power-to-Liquid (PtL) fuels represent the most promising SAF pathway. These fuels have industry-leading emissions reduction potential of up to 90% while using 30x less land and 1,000X less water compared to other SAF.

Know Your SAF: Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuels

In our latest report Know Your SAF: Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuels, we share in-depth analysis on these four pathways, from emissions reduction to land and water use.


▶︎ Learn about Twelve's E-Jet® Power-to-Liquid e-SAF


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